Building roads involves multiple factors that have to be taken into the note and have to be in a proper process, like planning, designing, and then laying pavement and then its timely proper maintenance.
Let us take a look into the major points which has to be ensured: –
1) Planning: – While going for road construction a company has to make sure they do proper planning and make sure to evaluate the needs which the roads have to fulfill. The movement on the roads and the traffic and the patterns of both current and future should be studied thoroughly because a good result is expected from the roads after much planning.
2)Design- The major and next step in road building is designing. The engineers will next visit the site and with the use of laser technology to see the alignment, direction, and shape of the road. The soil properties, drainage issues, the location terrain, and the future expansion of the roads and as well as the expansion of nearby residents, if any possible. Because all these factors may impact the road building, engineers and the companies have to make sure about the proper design of the road construction. The major factor is taking note if there is going to be any expansion in residency as it should not affect the residence’s housing structure and related aspects.
3) Laying pavement- Now the next thing is laying the pavement of the roads, as the most recommended and used materials are either asphalt or concrete nowadays. The pavement is laid, smoothed, trimmed according to the level, and then it is sealed and connected so that the road has long durability and it avoids the cracks in them. Due to better planning and designing of the roads and using the best materials according to their needs and usage, the roads can avoid damages and will only require timely maintenance.
4) QC (Quality check) – As the road is done with the construction, the roads are tested properly as a quality checkup is necessary. Before declaring the roads finished, the drainage will be checked, grading levels, and also landscaping and rehabilitation are taken into notice. After everything gets a positive result, the roads are declared to be ready to use.
5) Maintenance- Over time the roads face environmental factors which will affect the roads and also traffic is taken into the notice and the maintenance of the roads is done. Life expectations of the roads vary on their construction and the materials used. Also, the durability of the roads varies according to countries, but general expectations should be of few decades with the services done in every 10 years.
Different types of road construction are: –
1) Asphalt roads- Since the inception of construction in the early 1920s, asphalt paving is one of the most popular types of road construction. In asphalt road construction, a thick layer of asphalt is laid upon a thick gravel base. The advantages of asphalt road construction are that the pavement produces relatively little noise, also it has a low cost compared to other materials, and also it is easy to repair, and the maintenance is low too. But asphalt roads are known to be less durable and less strong, and also it is not good for the environment.
2) Concrete roads – After asphalt roads, concrete roads are the most popular technique of building roads, however, it is only used to build local roads and not recommended for any other kind of road building. The three major types of concrete roads are JPCP, JRPC, and CRCP; the distinguishing feature between the three is the joint system that is used to avoid the cracks that form in the roads. Though concrete roads are expensive to construct, and maintenance is also expensive than asphalt, it is known to be stronger and has long-lasting durability.
3) Composite- Composite road construction technique is more often used and related to rehabilitation, recycling, and maintenance. It is a combination of both asphalt and concrete and they are used in one of two methods. Composite materials are mostly used for damaged roads where there are too many cracks formed, and it is not used for constructing new roads.
4) Recycling – In recycling, there is three most known way of constructing related to the damaged or distressed pavement. Rubblizing, cold/hot in-place recycling, and full-depth reclamation. In rubblizing, the roads are reduced to gravel, and then the new layer is applied. To reinforce the road, hot and cold recycling relies on the bituminous pavement, and in full depth reclamation, total pulverization, and the addition of binding agents or other additives are involved.
5) Bituminous Solutions – Bituminous solutions are used mainly for the roads where the traffic is exceptionally low and where there is not too much movement of vehicles. Some of the examples of bituminous roads are chip sealing techniques, thin membrane, surfacing, and otta sealing. These all are mostly used as sealing coats or finished than a full road surfacing.
Now, these are the popular types of road construction and are used for all types of projects all across the globe, but they are obviously far from perfect. There’s where big companies come into the picture. Their dust control and soil stabilization techniques represent the major step forward in infrastructure and construction of buildings, as the result is exceptionally good in terms of performance and cost compared to the other road constructing methods and materials which are used in today’s time.